Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

June 2019

What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating trauma- and stressor-related disorder that can occur after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. The event may involve a real or perceived threat of injury or death. This can include a natural disaster, combat, an assault, physical or sexual abuse, or other trauma.

People with PTSD have a heightened sense of danger. Their natural fight-or-flight response is damaged, causing them to feel stressed or fearful, even in safe situations.

Once known as “shell shock” or “battle fatigue,” PTSD has received public attention because of the high number of war veterans with the disorder.

But PTSD can happen to anyone at any age. It occurs as a response to chemical changes in the brain after exposure to threatening events. PTSD isn’t the result of a character flaw or weakness.

What are the symptoms of PTSD?

Symptoms of PTSD can disrupt your normal activities

and your ability to function. Symptoms can be

triggered by words, sounds, or situations that remind

you of trauma. According to the National Institute of

Mental Health, symptoms fall into the following



  • flashbacks, in which it feels as if the event is
    occurring over and over

  • vivid, intrusive memories of the event

  • frequent nightmares about the event

  • mental or physical discomfort when reminded
    of the event



  • emotional apathy

  • lack of interest in daily activities

  • memory loss of the actual event

  • inability to express feelings

  • avoidance of people or situations that are reminders of the event


Arousal and reactivity

  • difficulty concentrating

  • startling easily and having exaggerated response to startling events

  • constant feeling of being on guard

  • irritability

  • bouts of anger

  • difficulty falling or staying asleep

Cognition and mood

  • negative thoughts about yourself

  • distorted feelings of guilt, worry, or blame

  • trouble remembering the event

  • decreased interest in once enjoyable activities


In addition, people with PTSD may experience depression and panic attacks. Panic attacks can cause:

  • agitation

  • excitability

  • dizziness

  • lightheadedness

  • fainting

  • a racing or pounding heart

  • headaches

How is PTSD diagnosed?

There is no specific test to diagnose PTSD. It can be difficult to diagnose because people with the disorder may be reluctant to recall or discuss the trauma or their symptoms.

A mental health specialist is best qualified to diagnose PTSD. These specialists include psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric nurse practitioners.

Diagnosis of PTSD requires experiencing all of the following for one month or longer:

  • at least one re-experience symptom

  • at least one avoidance symptom

  • at least two arousal and reactivity symptoms

  • at least two cognition and mood symptoms


Symptoms must be serious enough to interfere with daily activities. These activities include going to work or school, or being around friends and family members.

If you’re experiencing symptoms of PTSD, understand that you are not alone. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 8 million adults have PTSD in a given year.

If you have frequent upsetting thoughts, are unable to control your actions, or fear that you might hurt yourself or others, seek help right away.

When to seek help for PTSD
How is PTSD treated?

If you are diagnosed with PTSD, your doctor will likely prescribe a combination of therapies, including:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy, or “talk therapy,” to encourage you to remember the traumatic event and to express your feelings about it. This can help desensitize you to the trauma and reduce your symptoms.

  • Support groups, where you can discuss your feelings with other people who have PTSD. This will help you understand that your symptoms aren’t unusual and that you’re not alone.

  • Medications, such antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, and sleep aids, may be prescribed, depending on the person’s individual circumstances.Many people who have PTSD turn to drugs and alcohol to cope with their symptoms. While these methods may temporarily alleviate symptoms of PTSD, they don’t treat the underlying cause of stress. They can even make some symptoms worse.

    If you have trouble with substance abuse, your therapist may also recommend a 12-step program to reduce your dependency on drugs or alcohol.


Psychotherapy is an important tool to help you cope with PTSD symptoms. It can help you identify symptom triggers, manage your symptoms, and face your fears. Support from friends and family is helpful too.

Learning about PTSD will help you understand your feelings and how to effectively deal with them. Living a healthy lifestyle and taking care of yourself will also help with PTSD. Make sure to eat a well-balanced diet, get enough rest and exercise, and avoid anything that can make stress or anxiety worse.

What is the outlook for people with PTSD?

If you have PTSD, early treatment can help alleviate your symptoms. It can also give you effective strategies for coping with intrusive thoughts, memories, and flashbacks. Through therapy, support groups, and medication, you can get on the road to recovery. Always keep in mind that you’re not alone.

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